A contract is typically a written agreement wherein the parties fix the terms and conditions of their relationship and transactions. Termination of a contract is very important as it provides parties with an exit option. Under the Indian Contract Act 1872, a contract can be terminated by the parties involved by giving legitimate reasons like frustration, repudiatory breach, termination by prior agreement, rescission, or on completion.
Such termination may occur by the mutual consent of the parties or by law. However, if a contract is breached or terminated without mutual consent, then the party other than the one breaching it can seek certain legal remedies on account of such termination.
Following remedies may be pursued for if there is a termination of the contract:
- Suit for breach of contract: A suit for breach of contract can be instituted when either party breaches an enforceable agreement. The remedies can be obtained in the form of damages, restituting the suffering party, rescinding the contract, or ordering the breaching party to perform the contract. These damages shall include the compensation given for financial losses caused by a breach of contract.
- Damages: Under Section 73 of the Indian Contract Act, any party can claim compensation for loss or damages caused to them in the normal course of business if the other party breaches it. The liquidated damages are pre-decided by the parties while forming the contract. The unliquidated damages are assessed and determined by the courts or appropriate authorities after the contract is breached. The general aim of an award of damages for breach of contract is to compensate the innocent party for the actual loss suffered and to put the party back in the same position as it was before the formation of the contract. The damages incurred are assessed as at the date of the breach of contract. These damages may be for the pecuniary loss, non-pecuniary, and nominal damages.
- Specific Performance: Specific performance is an equitable and discretionary remedy given by the court in case of breach of contract, which compels the breaching party to perform a contractual obligation. It is generally awarded when the required obligation is unique and difficult to value. It may be ordered when the property is not an ordinary article of commerce or consists of goods which are not easily obtainable in the market.
- Injunction: Injunctive relief is a legal order that either makes it mandatory for the defaulting party to perform specific obligations or prohibits the defaulting party from performing certain tasks. It is also at the discretion of the court and can be ordered on an interim basis or a final basis. A common instance of interim injunctive relief is an order restraining the party from dealing in certain property until the substantive dispute has been concluded.
- Indemnity: Indemnity clauses are the contractual provisions that allow the parties to manage the risks attached to a contract by making one party compensate for the loss suffered by the other, due to specific events. An indemnity may be claimed for losses arising on account of the conduct of a third party. The damages, the amount paid under the terms of the agreement, legal costs of judgment, are some of the claims which Indemnity holders can include in its claims.
It is important that a contract includes all these remedies in writing. It is advisable to approach a lawyer and assess which remedies to termination of the contract, maybe the most beneficial.