Soumya Shekhar

Soumya Shekhar

Soumya is an independent legal consultant with over 7 years of experience. An alumnus of National Law University, Delhi and National University of Singapore, she has worked with various Tier-1 Law firms and is an expert in employment law, contract drafting and legal research. She enjoys writing and has been actively contributing articles for LegalKart for more than a year.

Know About Flat Registration

Know About Flat Registration

Owning a home is a dream for many. But, did you know that you need to Register your flat after you buy it? A flat needs to be registered in accordance with the law prevalent in the state in which it is bought. Every state in India has different rules for Flat Registration. Builders need to register their property under RERA, whereas buyers need to register their flat with the local registrar. Let us examine what all is required to register a flat. 


Importance of Flat Registry

Have you bought a flat recently? It is necessary to register this transaction. Registry of your flat is necessary for 2 reasons: 

  1. A flat is an immovable property. Thus, buying a flat is a transaction of immovable property. Such transactions do not take effect unless registered. Hence, it is necessary to register for the purchase of your flat. 

  2. Your flat, quite obviously, is standing on a particular land. As the owner of the flat, you have certain rights over that land. Once you register your flat, the state's land records will record your name as the lawful owner of your flat. This is a crucial piece of evidence which records what rights you have over your flat. 

You can also register an under-construction flat. The common misconception is that a flat cannot be registered before possession and that it can only be registered after possession. But, this is not the case. In fact, banks insist on the registration of under-construction flats before granting home loans. While such registration protects the interest of banks, the entire risk is put on the shoulders of the homebuyer.


Procedure for Flat Registration

When you bought your flat, you and the builder/seller will have executed a Sale Deed. This Sale Deed needs to be registered with the local Sub-Registrar of Assurances, who has jurisdiction over the locality in which your flat is located. Flat agreements in most states are registered online; however, the final step needs to be completed in the registrar's office.

The entire process typically involves the following steps: 

  1. Book an appointment for registering the Sale Deed: You need to register on the government's website and create a Login ID in most states. Then you need to upload the documents and book the appointment. 

  2. Pay the prescribed registration fees. 

  3. Attach copies of the Sale Deed and the identity proofs of the parties and the attesting witnesses. 

  4. The parties, and their attesting witnesses, have to be physically present at the Sub-Registrar's office at the date, and time, of the appointment. 

Depending on which state your flat is located in, some of these steps can be conducted online. However, in every state, Step 4 must be conducted offline: one visit to the Sub-Registrar's office for this purpose is necessary. 

For instance, for flat registration in Bangalore and the rest of Karnataka, Steps 1, 2, and 3 of the flat registration process can be conducted online on the Kaveri Online Portal. Similarly, for registering a flat in Pune and the rest of Maharashtra, Steps 1, 2, and 3 of the flat registration process can be conducted online on the IGR Maharashtra Portal. 


Cost of Flat Registration

The exact registration cost for your flat will vary from state to state. Typically, the registration cost is about 1 - 3% of the market value of the flat. 

Note that the flat's market value need not be the same price at which you have bought it. The sale price for your flat was determined between you and the builder/seller. This price can be quite literally anything. However, the market value of the flat is fixed and is calculated according to the rules of the state in which the flat is located. Most states now have online calculators available, which will give you a fairly precise estimate of the registration fees of your flat. 


Documents Required for Registration of Flat 

The following documents are required for the registry of flats: 

  1. Appointment letter, obtained after booking an appointment with the respective Sub-Registrar's office.

  2. Proof of payment of the required registration fees. 

  3. The original Sale Deed for your flat.  

  4. Identity proofs of the parties to, and the attesting witnesses of, the Sale Deed. 

  5. Copy of the Possession Letter issued by the seller/builder. 

Know About Property Rights of Daughters in India

Know About Property Rights of Daughters in India

In India, daughters did not always have property rights. Women have always been treated inferior to men, both in terms of inheritance rights and the capacity to hold Property independently. There were many restrictions on both inheritance rights and women's property rights, which did not exist for men. 

Today, the Law of Inheritance's entire body has undergone significant reforms through subsequent legislation and amendments. Daughters now have an equal share in Property.


Daughter's Right in Property

Today, your gender as a woman is of little consequence for your property rights. Hence, the property rights of daughters are almost entirely the same as the property rights of sons. 

A daughter can acquire, hold, and dispose of, Property at par with any other man. Today, there are practically no restrictions on a woman's capacity to acquire, hold, and dispose of, her Property. Daughters have an equal share in their father's self-acquired Property as well as ancestral property. Daughters after the Supreme Court judgment of 2005 have become coparceners. Hence, they have equal rights in all Property, including agricultural lands. Both men and women are equally capable of holding their own, separate Property. Any restrictions on property rights are the same for all genders. Hence, daughters today have virtually equal rights in Property as a son does.


Equal Property Share for Daughters

Your gender as a woman does not place you at any significant disadvantage in the arena of inheritance rights. 

As a daughter, you have the same inheritance rights as a son of your generation. Thus, a daughter has the same inheritance rights as a son; a granddaughter has essentially the same inheritance rights as a grandson, and so on. In most cases, the daughter is entitled to inherit the same share of her ancestors' Property as a son of the same generation is. Marriage does not affect a daughter's inheritance rights. A married daughter has the same right to Property as an unmarried daughter. 

In India, the Law of Inheritance varies based on religion. The religion of the deceased governs, which Law of Inheritance will apply. Thus, Hindu Inheritance Law applies to the death of a Hindu, Christian Inheritance Law applies to the death of a Christian, Muslim Inheritance Law applies to a Muslim's death, etc. 


Hindu Property Law for Daughters

Both sons, and daughters, are equally capable of acquiring, holding, and disposing of their own property. There is almost complete equality between sons and daughters in this regard. 

In the inheritance arena, the Hindu Law of Succession has undergone a great transformation over the past century. Classically, the property rights of daughters were significantly inferior to the property rights of sons. Subsequent legislation and amendments have nullified discrimination against daughters. After enacting the Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act, 2005, sons and daughters now enjoy virtually the same property rights. 


Equal Rights of Daughters in Joint Family Property

In Hindu Law, for the purpose of inheritance, Property is classified into two types: (1) Joint Family Property and (2) Self-Acquired Property. Essentially, all Property inherited by a son from their father, paternal grandfather, and paternal great-grandfather is considered Joint Family Property. All other Property is considered Self-Acquired Property. Depending on where you reside in India, the character of these types of properties is either the same or different. In regions where this distinction is followed: 

  1. Joint Family Property is inherited differently (compared to Self-Acquired Property). 

  2. Multiple persons have rights over the Joint Family Property by birth. This is unlike Self-Acquired Property, over which rights can be acquired only if you have acquired them yourself. 

The rights of both sons, and daughters, to inherit, acquire, hold, and dispose of the Self-Acquired Property of their ancestors is essentially the same everywhere.  

However, in regions where this distinction is maintained, daughters did not enjoy the same rights as sons in Joint Family Property for a long time. Daughters were at a disadvantage compared to sons in terms of both their rights to control the property and their rights to inherit it. Legislation after legislation has gradually diluted this inequality over the past century. Finally, with the enactment of the Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act, 2005, sons and daughters now have equal rights to inherit the Joint Family Property of their ancestors.

In 2020, the Supreme Court decision on property rights of daughters, Vineeta Sharma vs. Rakesh Sharma, confirmed that sons, and daughters, indeed have exactly the same rights in the Joint Family Property. The inheritance rights of the daughter do not change on her marriage, the death of her husband, the death of her father, or anything else for that matter. Hence, the case used what has now become a famous expression: "once a daughter, always a daughter." Thus, an unmarried daughter and a married daughter are all entitled to the same property rights in the Joint Family Property of their parents. A daughter-in-law is too entitled to inherit her father-in-law's Property. This rule holds true for a widowed daughter-in-law as well. As long as the daughter is alive, she is entitled to control and inherit her ancestors' Joint Family Property at par with a son.

What Does the Succession Law Say?
Wills / Trusts

What Does the Succession Law Say?

Throughout your life, you will acquire multiple properties. All of these properties, taken together, comprise your estate. When you pass away, your estate must find new owners. Otherwise, it will be left in an 'ownerless' estate. 

Thus, after you pass away, your estate will pass to new owners. This process is known as Succession or Inheritance. The new owners of your estate are known as your successors. Succession Law is the law that governs this entire process. Succession is different from Inheritance. Inheritance is the process of the heir inheriting his ancestors' Property. Succession governs how the inheritance would take place. Typically, under Indian Succession Law, a succession certificate is required. Succession Certificate is credible proof that the person obtaining the same is the rightful heir. 


Types of Succession

Succession is of two types: 

  1. Testamentary Succession. 

  2. Intestate Succession. 

After your death, the succession of your estate will be either testamentary or intestate. It cannot be both at the same time. If you have left behind a Will, the succession of your estate will be testamentary. Otherwise (that is, if you have not left behind a Will), your estate's succession will be intestate. 


Testamentary Succession

Testamentary succession is nothing more than executing a will. A will would then govern how your property is distributed among your legal heirs. A will includes the following information: 

a) Who gets your estate 

b) How is your estate distributed among the various heirs? 

Persons named in your will are your legatees. You can choose anyone to be your legatee. It is not required that a legatee is your relative. Wills are recognized under the Indian Succession laws.

The Indian Succession Act, 1925 governs the making and enforcing of Wills. It is the law which governs testamentary succession in India. Indian Succession Act, 1925 applies to everyone, except Muslims. Muslims are governed by their own personal laws. A Will gives you freedom to distribute your property according to your wishes.  However, if you are a Muslim, you cannot bequeath by a Will any more than 1/3 of your estate unless your legal heirs' consent to exceed this cap. There is no such limitation for anyone else.

You can execute your Will in accordance with the Indian Succession Act, 1925, if you are not a Muslim. If you are a Muslim, you have to execute your Will according to the Muslim personal laws. Capture the will in writing and sign it. You can also affix your thumb impression on the Will. Two witnesses need to attest the Will. These witnesses should have seen you sign the Will. A Will can be executed on plain paper. A Will need not be executed on a stamp paper. It is also not necessary to be registered.

Muslims can execute their Wills through a far easier procedure. Your Will need not be signed or written. It can even be oral. There is no need for attesting witnesses. You need to make your intent clear through your Will. However, oral wills are difficult to prove. Hence, It is preferable to capture your will in writing. 

After one passes away, a person should be made responsible to execute the will. Typically, lawyers are given this responsibility.  When another person implements the instructions given in the Will of a deceased, it is called executing the Will. The person who executes the Will is called an executor. Executors take care that the estate is distributed in accordance with the Will. There can be multiple executors. You can choose one person or more than one person to act as executors of your Will.  Remember to take their consent. Choosing an executor should be a careful process. If you don't appoint an executor, or the executors refuse to act as executors after your death, the competent court can appoint some of your legal heirs as the executor[s].


Intestate Succession

If you die without leaving a Will, your property would pass on through Intestate succession. Laws governing intestate succession in India are not uniform. You are governed by the personal law of your religion. 

Different laws of intestate succession govern different religions in India. For instance, Hindu Succession Act, 1956 governs the intestate succession for Hindus.  Indian Succession Act, 1925, governs the intestate succession for Christians. Hence, if you are a Hindu, then the Hindu Succession Act, 1956 will apply; if you are a Christian, then the Indian Succession Act, 1925 will apply, etc.

While different laws apply to different religions, the core provisions are uniform across all laws. Certain persons will become the new owners of your estate. These persons are known as your legal heirs.

Each legal heir will inherit a specific share of your estate. The applicable Law of Intestate Succession will hence specify both your legal heirs and the shares of your estate each legal heir is entitled to inherit.

For instance, consider a married Hindu male. If you are a Hindu married male, ordinarily, your wife, sons, daughters, and mother are your legal heirs. They will each take an equal share of your estate. If you pass away leaving behind,a son, daughter and a wife, each of them will be entitled to an equal share. If your daughter is already deceased and is survived by her daughter, then your grand-daughter would also have a right in the property through her deceased mother. 


Hindu Law of Succession

The Hindu Law of Succession is contained in the following three sources: 

  1. The Indian Succession Act, 1925, which governs the testamentary succession of the estate of a Hindu. 

  2. The Hindu Succession Act, 1956, which governs the intestate succession of the estate of a Hindu. 

  3. The succession of Hindu Joint Family Property, in almost the whole of India except some eastern regions, continues to be governed by ancient religious rules. This is quite a small portion of the Hindu Law of Succession. 

Succession in Hindu Law makes a distinction between two types of Property: (1) Joint Family Property and (2) Self-Acquired Property. In almost all parts of India except portions of the eastern region, the rules of succession governing Joint Family Property, and Self-Acquired Property, are different.  

The Hindu Succession Amendment Act of 2005 has now started giving daughters also succession rights. 


The Indian Succession Act, 1925

The Indian Succession Act 1925, is one of the oldest Indian statutes governing succession. It governs intestate succession for Christians, Parsis, and some other religions. 

However, the Indian Succession Act is special for two other reasons. 

  1. It is the uniform law that governs testamentary succession for all religions except Islam. Hence, unless you are a Muslim, the entire process of preparing and executing a will, beginning from you authoring it to your wishes in it being carried out, will be governed by the Indian Succession Act, 1925. 

  2. Even in cases of intestate succession controlled by other religious laws, the Indian Succession Act has a role to play in some respects. For instance, the Act contains the procedure for appointing administrators for your estate. Administrators are responsible for distributing your estate to your legal heirs. Another important function is, succession certificates are issued under the Indian Succession Act. A Succession Certificate issued to a particular person will establish that they are entitled to succeed as a part of your estate.